The consortium of VOLTAIRE has been expanded in VOLTAIRE-2 so as to include CEMHTI, GREMI, IRAMAT and InfoSol laboratories (all at Orléans), which belong to different research fields or CNRS divisions (Chemistry (INC), Engineering Sciences (INSIS) and Human and Social Sciences (INSHS)). These units bring expertise in the general field of spectroscopic techniques, nanomaterial fabrication and instrument operation, as well as on modelling and data spatialisation issues. All four units already cooperate with VOLTAIRE scientists either via other PIA project (ie PLANEX, CAPRYSSES) or through shared PhDs or engineers (hired by VOLTAIRE) and their integration into VOLTAIRE 2 considerably reinforces the consortium’s skills in instrument and modelling activities.
Nowadays, the consortium consists of 132 permanents and about 60 Masters (M1+M2), 40 PhD, 20 PDRA: a total of about 250 persons is involved (partly or fully supported by VOLTAIRE-2).
ISTO is a joint research unit of UO–CNRS–BRGM. It brings expertise in the general field of Earth Sciences including field observations (structural geology, ore processes, water ressources, wetlands etc..) and corresponding instrumental activities. These most notably include the operation of HP/HT equipement, new experimental/analytical facilities (ie PLANEX, VOLTAIRE), instrumented sites (PIVOTs, SNO peatlands). All the permanent staff of ISTO are involved (80 persons) in VOLTAIRE-2 (5 research teams: Geodynamics, Magmas, Continental biogeochemistry, Metallogeny and deep Earth energies and Porous media).
LPC2E, is orientated toward atmosphere and space science and has 60 permanents. As a recognition of its excellence in these fields, the CNES is now a tutorial institution of LPC2E, in addition to UO and CNRS. Its outsanding feature is being one of INSU’s space laboratories, designing, producing and using stratospheric instruments placed on satellites or European balloons and aircrafts. The team participating in VOLTAIRE-2 is the “atmospheric environment” team, now reshaped to include planetology. The research of this team bears mostly on terrestrial atmosphere.
ICARE is a CNRS research unit with 60 permanents which conducts research in the fields of energy and environment, on the one hand, and on spatial propulsion, on the other hand. Its principal expertise concerns combustion kinetics and dynamics and reactive systems, very high speed flows, electrical propulsion and atmospheric reactivity. In VOLTAIRE-2 in addition to the “atmospheric reactivity” team involved in VOLTAIRE, ICARE provide large scale facilities allowing the simulation of the atmospheric entry of objects and expertise in the field of modelling of volcanic gases.
LEO is a CNRS-UO research unit (FRE2014). It comprises a hundred members, whose research covers three major areas of expertise: 1) Macroeconomics and Finance, 2) Econometrics, 3) International trades and sustainable development). The third team (5 permanents) participating to VOLTAIRE 2 tackles economical issues related to the exploitation of natural ressources.
UR Sol , a research unit of INRA, is composed of 26 permanent. It provides expertise on the organization, evolution and functioning of soil at different spatial (horizon, solum, plot, watershed, landscape) and temporal (rainstorms, growing season, rotation, decade, century and beyond) scales. It analyzes the variability of soil characteristics and properties (texture and mineralogy, porosity, structural stability, hydrodynamic and geochemical properties) as a function of their origin (parent material, pedogenesis), their use by humans and the climate.
InfoSol (Soil Information unit) is a service unit from INRA composed of 27 permanents. Under the supervision of the French Soils Scientific Interest Group (Gis Sol, www.gissol.fr), its main tasks are to (i) coordinate the collection of soil information across France, (ii) manage the national information system on soils, in relation to their spatial distribution, their properties and the evolution of their qualities and (iii) develop (geo)statistical methods to analyze, model and spatialize soil data. It also manages the Conservatoire des Sols which stores an archive of French soils (http://www.val-de-loire.inra.fr/Les-poles-de-recherches/Dynamique-des-sols-et-gestion-de-l-environnement/US-InfoSol2. InfoSol interacts with all Labex members on issues related to data storage, exchange and availability and provides solutions for the spatial and temporal treatment of data. It particularly takes in charge soil data to model and spatialize soil parameters and functions.
CEMHTI is composed of 80 permanents of which 18 participates to VOLTAIRE-2. It is a CNRS research unit specialised in the study of material properties under extreme conditions, notably at high temperature or under irradiation, and is one of the leading laboratories in the Equipex PLANEX. It hosts a variety of unique facilities (IR RMN, Cyclotron, IR emissitivity, Raman/Brillouin measurement in confined materials, irradiation for dating) that are used by VOLTAIRE-2. CEMHTI provides a range of expertise related to these facilities and allied modelling.
GREMI is composed of 60 permanent of which 5 participate to VOLTAIRE-2. It is a CNRS-UO joint unit specialised in the experimental study of plasmas- and laser-based industrial processes, the development of energy sources, with applications in the general fields of energy and material sciences, being critically involved in the Equipex PLANEX. It is involved for the elaboration and characterisation of nanomaterial and for the modelling of diffusion processes.
IRAMAT is a UO-CNRS joint research unit on archeomaterials which is specialised in the development of non destructive analytical techniques for the characterisation of historical or pre-historical man made/used objects so as to, inter alia, identify the provenance of material and their diffusion paths via human activities. It hosts two LA ICP-MS machines (one of which has been acquired by VOLTAIRE), and assists VOLTAIRE-2 in developping the second machine to serve the interest of all parties.