WP2 : Deep fluids: Magmatic Pre-concentrations and Hydrothermal Systems

Michel Pichavant (CNRS-ISTO), Laurent Guillou-Frottier (BRGM)

Background and rationale

The resources component of the LABEX is scientifically positioned on two main topics: magmatic preconcentrations and the dynamics of hydrothermal systems.

The study of magmatic pre-concentrations presents a major issue in that the fertility criteria, as defined for certain types of magmas, can serve as guides for prospecting activities. However, the establishment of this type of criteria represents a real difficulty. Although numerous very empirical or “descriptive” approaches, based on geochemistry, have been attempted, the modern approach favors fundamental research on the mechanisms of concentration in magmas, which leads to define fertility criteria on physicochemical bases.

The experimental and analytical aspects are the essential part of this approach, which necessarily includes several components. In particular, we will work on:

  1. the mechanisms for incorporation of metals in magmas (nature of source rocks, stability of carrier phases and especially of sulfurs, mineral-liquid partition coefficients ;
  2. the processes for transport and concentration of metals at the magmatic stage (speciation of metal elements)
  3. the transfer of metals to the hydrothermal system (liquid-vapor partition coefficients).

The experimental data on the behavior of metals in magmas must be accompanied by similar data regarding volatile elements such as S and Cl (solubilities, mineral-liquid and liquid-vapor partition coefficients). Finally, information on the type of speciation of metals in the silicate liquid, extracted from measurements of solubility, may possibly be combined with direct analytical approaches (spectroscopic measurements, e.g., EXAFS).

All of this information from the laboratory should obviously be continually compared with the constraints introducedby representative examples of mineralized systems, in order, on the one hand, to advance theirinterpretation and, on the other hand, to refine the boundary conditions and the relevance ofexperimental simulations.
The accent will be on high-spatial resolution techniques (notably laser ablationICP-MS, IR microspectrometry and Raman, EXAFS on synchrotron radiation for some experimentalmaterials) permitting the analysis of early phases of the magmatic evolution (vitreous and mineralinclusions), in particular in mineralized samples that are often partially or even totally transformed. Otherthan the determination of the main intensive parameters of magmatic evolution (H2O, fO2, fS2 content),the analyses will allow defining the metal concentrations (in S, Cl) of natural magmatic liquids. An objective basis will thus be established for discussing the possible specialization of magmatic seriesrelatively to metals.

The study of fluids will be tackled through close association of “chemical” and “physical”approaches. For example, the serpentinization of the rocks in the oceanic crust is associated with large changes in volume, and therefore may affect the permeabilities and the mechanisms of fluid circulation.In return, the regime and flux of fluid circulation can control the development of interactions with the enclosing rocks, the chemical evolution of the fluids and the production of natural hydrogen. Additional examples illustrating the association, actions and feedback between circulation mechanisms, hydrothermal changes and mineralizations are known in other contexts, notably in the case of mesothermal gold deposits that are interpreted as being seismic valves of the Sibson type in which the deformation and functioning of faults control the transient regime of hydrothermal circulations. Currently, however, combined studies of fluid systems are still underdeveloped. Essentially, they can only beconsidered with a limited number of approaches, among which experimentation and digital modeling areessential.

Experimental simulation can provide answers regarding the functioning of complexfluid systems, notably from observations on the relevant analogs chosen. However, very few studies so far have considered fluid-rock interactions by considering fluid circulation mechanisms at different scales, ranging from the mineral scale to the rock scale.

One of the reasons for this state of events is the necessary sophistication of experimental setups whose development currently constitutes afrontier for experimental studies in fluid-mineral interactions. This project proposes to develop such experimental tools on the basis of existing and already operational instruments (Paterson press, oscillating autoclaves with sampling) or in the process of development as part of funded projects (ANRFLUXHYD,CALAMINE Centre Region Project, Equipex PLANEX).

The digital modeling approach is probably the only one that can provide simulations of reality in all its complexity. The association of the physical aspects (hydrodynamics, thermodynamics) and chemical aspects (fluid-mineral equilibriums, masstransfers) will constitute a medium/long-term goal.

Current digital models of hydrothermal circulations at the moment do not integrate chemical reaction modules. Furthermore, these models are generally based on fluid flows integrated over time, and rarely on a fine description of the hydrodynamics of hydrothermal systems. However, this does not at all diminish the interest of the digital approach, in particular when it is conducted in close association with experimental simulations that can play a reference role. In addition to the comprehension and fine quantification of the fluid circulation processes in rocks, as well as their capacity for transport of metal elements, the expected benefit is the definition of guides for prospecting defined on a physicochemical basis.

Results of WP 2 (2011-2014)

The work has focused on the role of crustal fluids in the genesis of mineralization with two themes: (i) hydrothermal systems, and (ii) magmatic systems.

Hydrothermal systems: Models for large massive sulfide deposits (e.g. Iberian Pyrite belt, Cyprus) are constructed from present-day hydrothermal systems such as those observed at mid-ocean ridges. Metals are thought to be leached from mafic rocks and deposited at the crust-seawater interface as sulfide minerals (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Diagram of a typical hydrothermal system within an oceanic ridge axial zone (modified from Alt, 1995). Permeability data of the sheeted dyke complex are compiled from two different methods: fracture and vein mapping in ophiolites (Nehlig, 1994; van Everdingen, 1995) and in situ measurements in current oceanic crusts (Becker and Fisher, 2000). Notice that hydrothermal fluid flow (recharge area, reaction zone and discharge area) can be represented in two directions (perpendicular and parallel to ridge axis). From Coehlo et al (2015, Tectonophysics 644-645, 138-150)

Scientific questions related to the genesis of VMS mineralisations include (i) the identification of the physical mechanisms controlling fluid circulation and (ii) constraining the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids as a way to explain the geochemical specificity of the different massive sulfide deposits (ie, Cu-rich vs. Zn-rich) and so to guide exploration.

The Troodos Massif (Cyprus) offers a continuous cross-section in the oceanic crust from the deep zone of the hydrothermal system up to the level of sulfide precipitation. Because they are structurally simpler than the Iberian Pyrite Belt, the Cyprus VMS have been selected for detailed studies. Work on the Cyprus volcagenic massive sulfide (VMS) has benefited from a PhD thesis and also from an ANR project about hydrothermal serpentinisation and H2 generation. Field work has established the geometry of fluid circulations in the dyke unit of the oceanic crust. Permeabilities of diabase lithologies have been measured experimentally in the Paterson press as a first step to model numerically the fluid circulations (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Left panel: Permeability evolutions of epidosite from the sheeted dyke complex of Troodos Ophiolite using argon (A) and water as pore fluids (B). In (A&B), permeability was measured at different steps of differential stress. Notice that the error bars of permeability measurements are almost zero. Right panel: Permeability evolutions of strongly chloritized metadiabase from the sheeted dyke complex of Troodos Ophiolite using argon (A) and water as pore fluids (B). In (A), it was not possible to measure the permeability before and after macroscopic failure. So, using argon as pore fluid, permeability was certainly lower than the minimum permeability measurable by the steady-state flow method represented by blue dashes (5 × 10-21m2; GSA repository item2003132 of Tenthorey and Cox, 2003). In (B), it was not possible to measure the permeability during deformation before macroscopic failure. When permeability stabilized after macroscopic failure, the specimen was deformed again with a slip (Sl) of 300 μm on the fracture (From Coehlo et al., 2015, Tectonophysics 644-645, 138-150)

In parallel, the chemistry of fluid inclusions trapped in quartz and epidote have been determined. The significance of epidote (epidosite rocks being systematically associated with the roots of the hydrothermal systems) has been explored from a combined experimental (synthesis of epidote) and analytical (major and trace element) approach.

LA ICP-MS analyses of sulfide phases preserved in gabbroic rocks provide inference of the concentration and distribution of Ag, Au, Pb, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn in rocks affected by the hydrothermal circulations. Synthetic sulfides compositionally similar to those in gabbroic rocks are currently being experimentally leached to simulate the transfer of metals from the oceanic crust to the hydrothermal system. These different actions (structural field studies, analytical, experimental, ie, permeability, synthesis, sulfide-fluid metal partitioning, numerical modeling) enable a coherent quantitative picture to be obtained on hydrothermal fluid circulations and origin of VMS.

Magmatic systems: Studies have focused on Li and rare metals (W, Nb, Ta, Cs, Be) in Variscan silicic crustal magmas and have involved several sub-projects centered on variscan granitic pegmatites.

Subproject 1 has worked on the emplacement of pegmatites in order to constrain their mechanisms of genesis, differentiation and magma ascent mechanisms. This has involved the development of a petrological classification of pegmatites, investigations on the field relations between granites and pegmatites and a geostatistical analysis of the geographical repartition of pegmatitic rocks in two pegmatite fields. Structural and field evidence has been complemented by isotopic fingerprinting of the source rocks for the different pegmatite bodies, using Li, O stable isotopes (Figure 3). Magma ascent of fluid pegmatite melts from their source region (assumed more viscous) is now currently studied from a numerical point of view.

Subproject 2 has concentrated on the mechanisms of genesis of Li- and other rare metal-rich granitic melts by experimentally simulating crustal anatexis under a range of conditions, including various source lithologies and fluid regimes. The expected results include the measurement of mineral-melt partition coefficients for Li and other rare elements for mineral phases such as quartz, feldspars and micas and the determination of the most favorable partial melting conditions leading to the observed range of rare element concentrations in enriched silicic magmas. This study should also provide constraints on fluid regimes and on the main melting reactions involved in the production of typical Variscan granitic magmas such as two-mica granites.

Subproject 3 has studied the granitic rocks (St Sylvestre massif) which are the hosts of the pegmatite fields in NW Massif Central. A detailed structural study of the massif has been performed and the field relationships between the different granitic units determined. A 3D model for the emplacement of the granite has been established. This model takes into account and is consistent with new (U-Pb zrc/mnz) ages that have been obtained on this granite. Geochemical characterization of the granite is in progress through major and trace element analysis and Lu-Hf isotopic characterization of zircon to constrain source rocks.

Results of WP 2 (2015-2018)

For that period, major new methodological and conceptual developments introduced by WP2 include geostatistical approaches for localization of mineralized bodies especially in sub-surface conditions (e.g., Tourbière et al., 2015, Comp. Geosc.), mineralogical tools for the measurement of fluid flow velocities (e.g., Launay et al., in press, EPSL) and the building of an anatectic model for the origin of ore-bearing granitic magmas (e.g., Deveaud et al., 2015, Chem. Geol.; Pichavant et al., 2016, Can. Mineral.; Villaros et al., submitted, GCA).

Figure 3. δ7Li values (‰) versus Li content (ppm) measured on whole rocks and separated Li micas from granite–pegmatite systems. δ7Li values (‰) from the present study are represented by black squares. δ7Li values (‰) measured on lepidolite and granite biotite are distinguished from the other pegmatite micas (From Deveau et al., 2015, Chemical Geology 411, 97–111)

The Raman spectroscopy based graphite thermometer has been also extended to trace paleofluid circulations and extensions of hydrothermal alteration zones in complex tectono-metamorphic contexts (e.g., Delchini et al., 2016, Figure 4). The Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) thermometric approach allows determining the peak temperature recorded by metasediments. The method has been tested in complex contexts where regional and contact metamorphism are superimposed and hydrothermal fluid circulations can locally perturb temperature distributions, as many Variscan settings. The Jebilet massif of the Moroccan Meseta was chosen as a test site. It is a classical polymetamorphic area moreover characterized by a polyphase magmatic history and associated mineralizations.

Figure 4. Thermometric results on the Jebilet massif (Morocco) comparing temperatures obtained with the revised graphite thermometer (black) and using pseudo-sections (red) (From Delchini et al., 2016, 256-257, 1-12)

Results show that the RSCM method can be applied to terranes structured by the Variscan orogeny and having undergone polyphase metamorphism. Temperatures obtained near contact aureole areas reveal perturbed thermal regimes. The RSCM method is a reliable tool to follow the temperature evolution in a contact metamorphism environment and enables the detection of hidden plutons.

As concerns the hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crust, the mechanisms behind metal mobilisation during hydrothermal alteration of the lower oceanic crust by leaching of sulfide and silicate minerals within the sheeted dyke complex, have been investigated, on the example of the Troodos ophiolite in Cyprus, which hosts dozens of metal-rich VMS deposits and exposes a well-preserved, complete section of the Cretaceous oceanic crust.


Figure 5. Hydrothermal sulfides. Volcanic section
Figure 6. Hydrothermal sulfides. Sheeted dykes complex

We have carried out in-situ analyses of metal contents in sulfide minerals from a range of selected samples covering the most part of the ophiolite section, from the volcanic unit (Figure 5) down to the plutonic complex (Figure 6). Textural observations allow us to distinguish several types of secondary sulfide minerals (high temperature hydrothermal, metasomatized/leached, low temperature, and patchy sulfides), and reconstruct hypothetical circulation paths of mineralizing fluids through the crust. Various metal concentrations between the different types of sulfides indicate selective metal mobilisation and trapping as a function of fluid temperature and type of alteration.







We suggest that not only the epidosite zone contributes as a source of metals, but most of the sheeted dyke complex (i.e. the altered diabase) and the plutonic complex as well. The water/rock ratio at the peak of alteration at Troodos is calculated from metal mass-balance and sulfide/fluid partitioning data, and the role of silicate minerals as a significant source of metals, besides sulfides, is emphasized.

More generally, several key physical and chemical parameters of hydrothermal systems have been constrained experimentally including permeability (Coelho et al., 2015, Tectonophys.), sulfide-fluid and sulfide-melt partition coefficients (Launay et al., in progr.; Ferraina et al., in progr.) and conditions of H2 sequestration and generation (e.g., Fauguerolles et al., submitted, Chem. Geol.).

Figure 5 : Reactive transfer experiments bearing on H2 production and storage. From left to right, (A) Relative permeabilities of H2 in the system H2O-H2 at 20 et 45°C (Yekta et al., 2018), (B) Proportions of Fe3+ of solid phases as a function of temperature in serpentinisation experiments of harzburgite (Fauguerolles et al., 2018a), (C) Kinetics of H2 production in serpentinisation experiments of harzburgite (Fauguerolles et al., 2018b)

Thematically, field, structural, mineralogical, geochemical and experimental constraints have been used to constrain a numerical model of hydrothermal fluid circulation in the crust applied to massive sulfide deposition (Jego et al., in progr.) and peribatholitic environment (Launay et al., 2018, Figure 6).

Figure 6. Examples of basal sections of tourmaline from veins (a) and altered wall-rocks (b) displaying an asymmetric shape caused by an anisotropic growth. (c) Measurements of growth bands thickness and orientation on a basal section of tourmaline. (d) Curve deduced from numerical modeling showing relationship between fluid velocity and flux ratio. The filled boxes indicate range of averages of fluid velocities derived from dmax/dminratio measured on tourmalines from altered wall-rocks (blue) and veins (red) (From Launay et al., 2018, EPSL, 499, 1-12)

Melting experiments have succeeded in generating rare-metal granite magmas (Michaud et al., in progr.), and the respective roles of source pre-enrichment, fluid regime and magma fractionation on metal concentrations have been clarified (Jego et al., 2016, GCA; Villaros et al., in progr.; Nabyl et al., in progr.).  These methodological and experimental developments have been backed up by high resolution state-of-art analytical techniques including LA ICP-MS and synchrotron-based (SOLEIL) Xray microfluorescence determination of metal concentrations, performed for the first time in experimental charges (Michaud et al., in progr.).

Detailed studies of key variscan granite-related deposits have clarified the respective importances of magmatic and hydrothermal processes in ore concentration and deposition (Michaud et al., submitted, Min. Dep.). In particular, the Argemela district, central Portugal, is one of the rare Variscan mineralized systems to expose a complete sequence of magmatic to hydrothermal ore-forming processes. Disseminated mineralizations comprise amblygonite (Li), cassiterite (Sn) and columbo-tantalite (Nb, Ta) dispersed in rare metal granites. Vein-type mineralizations, both intragranitic and in country rocks, include amblygonite and cassiterite but also locally wolframite (W). What is remarkable is that the Argemela district allows to follow the behaviour of the different metals (Sn, W, Nb, Ta) in a continuous way from the magmatic to the hydrothermal stages, i.e., during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition.

Figure 7. Interpretative cross section of the Argemela district showing the two mineralized systems (ATM and AHT).

The district is made of two neighbouring mineralized systems (ATM, AHT, Figure 7) which have several features (granite type, presence of intragranitic and country rock veins) in common. Both are emplaced in the same regional geological setting characterized by a pressure shadow around the Fundão pluton and a N170°E trending dextral shear corridor.

Figure 8. Mineralizing events in the ATM and AHT systems. A continuous sequence of ore-forming processes from magmatic to hydrothermal is exposed.

Sn and W show a markedly contrasted behaviour during ore-forming processes. Magmatic cassiterite occurs in the Argemela granite but has no wolframite counterpart (Figure 8). Cassiterite, little represented in intragranitic veins, is systematic in country rock veins. Wolframite, found in intragranitic veins, occurs only locally in country rock veins. It crystallizes in 2 stages, the earliest characterized by remarkable Mn-rich (hübnerite) compositions.

Understanding wolframite deposition is a key to develop reliable exploration guides for W. In quartz veins from the Variscan belt and elsewhere, most wolframites are Fe-rich (ferberites, H/F ratio > 50), consistent with deposition models that involve either interactions between fluid and country rocks, between fluid and granite (greisenisation) or boiling of the magmatic fluid. Mn-rich wolframites (hübnerites, H/F ratio < 50) also occur, although more rarely, and their deposition require a specific environment.

At Argemela (Central Portugal), wolframite (H/F ratio = 30) is found in intragranitic veins which, on the basis of field, structural, mineralogical and stable isotope data, represent fluids exsolved from the granite at the magmatic-hydrothermal transition (Michaud et al., 2018). Early wolframite in a country rock vein is also Mn-rich (H/F ratio = 40). Wolframite deposition in intragranitic veins results from cooling of the igneous fluid in isolation from the host rock (fluid-buffered path). Wolframite chemistry reflects high Mn/Fe during magmatic differentiation of the Argemela rare-metal granite. Wolframite deposition is promoted by montebrasite precipitation which removes Li, Al and P from the fluid. Such a specific chemical environment in the magmatic-hydrothermal system is a reflection of crustal sources of the Argemela rare-metal granite which are Al-, Li- and P-rich .Our results suggest that the H/F ratio can be used as an indicator of contrasted W deposition environments in perigranitic ore-forming systems. Hübnerite is a relatively simple indicator of a strong magmatic control on W deposition. It is a tracer of proximal highly evolved igneous bodies such as rare-metal granite and/or pegmatite with potential for commodities such as quartz and feldspar, kaolin and disseminated Sn-Nb-Ta ores in addition to W. High H/F ratios wolframites imply a specific W deposition environment that contrasts with mechanisms leading to intermediate to elevated H/F ratios and need to be considered among W exploration guides

Figure 9. Wolframite compositions in representative Variscan W deposits. H/F ratio = 100 at. Fe/(Fe+Mn).

Owing to its important role on ore forming processes, investigations regarding the behaviour of this elements in magmatic systems have been performed. In particular, sulfur being a minor but ubiquitous multivalent element in magmatic systems, makes it a potential useful tracer of the redox state of evolving magmas. Sulfur has been shown to dissolve in silicate melts as either reduced (sulfide, S2-) or oxidized  (sulfate, S6+) species depending on the oxygen fugacity (fO2). It is generally considered that S is entirely expressed as sulfide at fO2 below the FMQ buffer and as sulfate above ~FMQ+2. In between lies the sulfide-sulfate transition in the course of which the solubility of sulfur at sulfide saturation (SCSS) increases dramatically until reaching the solubility of sulfur at anhydrite saturation (SCAS). Over this narrow fO2 range, S dissolves in silicate melts as both S2- and S6+, and it is generally admitted in the literature that the transition occurs at fixed fO2, independently of the intensive parameters (pressure, temperature, melt composition, H2O concentration).

Figure 10. Sulfur behaviour in silicate melts, with emphasis on the role of fO2 and pressure.



Yet, recent studies suggest that the transition would be shifted towards higher (i.e., more oxidizing) fO2 with increasing pressure. We therefore aimed to test this hypothesis by a direct method, i.e., by performing melt sulfur solubility experiments over a wide pressure range, imposing oversaturation in both sulfide and sulfate so as to target the transition, and measuring the corresponding fO2 with solid sensors. Results allow the pressure effect on sulfur speciation to be experimentally verified, and also show that pressure has a strong negative effect on S solubility (Fig. 10).

When compared to previous melt gold solubility data obtained at similar pressures and oxygen fugacities, our results demonstrate that Au solubility is not directly affected by pressure variations. Nevertheless, owing to the pressure dependence of S speciation and solubility, and the fact that Au dissolution is mainly controlled by a complex interplay of fO2 and melt S2- concentration in sulfide-saturated melts, this study emphasizes the importance of pressure variations for metal enrichment of uprising sulfide-saturated magmas.





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Melleton J., Eric Gloaguen, D. Frei, A. Lima. Polyphased rare-element magmatism during late orogenic evolution: LA-SF-ICP-MS dating of colombite-group minerals from NW Variscan Iberia. International Mineralogical Association IMA 2014, Sept. 2014, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Melleton J., Millot R., Lions J., Renaud C. and Gloaguen E. – 2014. Isotopic and trace elements geochemistry from surface and ground waters: a new tool for mineral resources exploration, example from the Li-Ta-Nb-Sn-W deposits of Echassières (France). Goldschmidt conference, Sacramento, USA, June 8-13, 2014. Goldschmidt Abstracts, 2014:1664.

Tuduri J., Pourret O., Gloaguen E., Gouin J., Potel S., Dörr W., Colin S. and Chevillard M. – 2014. “U-Pb age and geochemistry of authigenic monazites of the Armorican Massif. Implications for formation of monazite-(MREE) from paleozoic shales”. 24ème Réunion des Sciences de la Terre, 27-31 Octobre 2014, Pau, abstract volume p. 342-343.

Villaros A., Deveaud S., Pichavant, M. 2014. Micas crystallisation as markers of pegmatite composition. International Mineralogical Association meeting Septembre 2014, Johannesbourg, South Africa.

Villaros A., Deveaud S., Pichavant M. 2014. The granite-pegmatite connection: insight from mica trace element chemistry. 24e réunion des Sciences de la Terre Octobre 2014, Pau, France.

Villaros A., Laurent O., Pichavant M., Zeh A., Cuney M., Deveaud S. 2014. Source variability in a single granitic pluton: Example from the St Sylvestre Leucogranite complex. 24e réunion des Sciences de la Terre Octobre 2014, Pau, France.



Barbey P., Villaros A., Montel J-M, Marignac C. 2015. Multiphase melting, magma emplacement and P-T-time path in late-collisional context: the Velay example (Massif Central, France). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 186:93-116.

Christmann P, Gloaguen E, Labbé JF, Melleton J, Piantone P. 2015. CHAPTER 1 Global Lithium Resources and Sustainability Issues. In : Chagnes (ed) « Lithium Process Chemistry », Elsevier, pp 1-40.

Coelho G, Branquet Y, Sizaret S, Arbaret L, Champallier R, Rozenbaum O. 2015. Permeability of sheeted dykes beneath oceanic ridges: strain experiments coupled with 3D numerical modeling of the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Tectonophysics, 644–645: 138–150.

Coelho, G., Sizaret, S., Arbaret, L., Branquet, Y., Jégo, S. Epidotization at the base of sheeted dyke complex: Experimental constraints on epidosite formation. Submitted to Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., in revision.

Deveaud S., Millot R., Villaros A. 2015. The genesis of LCT-type granitic pegmatites, as illustrated by lithium isotopes in micas. Chemical Geology, 411:97-111.

Tartèse, R., Poujol, M., Gloaguen, E., Boulvais, P., Drost, K., Kosler, J., Ntaflos T. 2015. Hydrothermal activity during tectonic building of the Variscan orogen recorded U-Pb systematics of xenotime in the Grès Armoricain formation, Massif Armoricain, France. Mineralogy and Petrology, 109:485-500.

Tourlière B., Evren Pakyuz-Charrier, Daniel Cassard, Luc Barbanson, Charles Gumiaux. 2015. Cell based associations: A procedure for considering scarce and mixed mineral occurrences in predictive mapping. Computers & Geosciences, 78: 53-62.


Couzinié, S., Laurent, O., Moyen, J.-F., Zeh, A., Villaros. A, Bouilhol, P. 2015. Lithospheric mantle melting during continental collision: Crustal growth or crustal recycling? A case study from the Variscan French Massif Central. VIII Hutton Symposium: Granites and associated Rocks. Sept 2015, Florianopolis. Brésil.

Couzinié, S., Laurent O., Moyen J.-F., Armin Zeh A., Vézinet A., Villaros A. Mg-K magmatic suites as a tool to scan the composition of the Variscan orogenic mantle, case studies from the French Massif Central. Variscan Conference, 2015, Rennes, France.

Delchini, S., Lahfid, A., Maacha, L., Ramboz, C., Branquet, Y. Nouvelles données thermiques acquises par géothermométrie Raman dans et autour des gisements polymétalliques de Draa Sfar et Hajjar, situés dans le domaine hercynien du Maroc. Congrès international 3MA, 2015, Agadir (Maroc).

Delchini, S., Lahfid, A., Ramboz, C., Branquet, Y. New peak temperature constraints using RSCM geothermometry on the Hajjar Zn-Pb-Cu mine and its surroundings (Guemassa massif, Morocco). Extended abstract submitted to SGA 2015, 13th Biennal Meeting, 24-27 August 2015, Nancy, France.

Delchini, S., Lahfid, A., Ramboz, C., Branquet, Y Maacha, L. Contribution of the RSCM geothermometry to understanding the thermal history of the Hajjar deposit (Guemassa massif, Morocco). AGU Fall Meeting, 2015 San Francisco.

Deveaud, S., L. Guillou-Frottier, R. Millot. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol 17, EGU2015-5504-1, 2015. EGU Geneal Assembly, EGU 2015, Wien, Austria, April 2015.

Deveaud, S., L. Guillou-Frottier, R. Millot, E. Gloaguen, Y. Branquet, A. Villaros, M. Pichavant, D. Barbosa da Silva, 2015. Innovative and multi-disciplinary approach for discussing the emplacement of Variscan LCT-pegmatite fields. 13th SGA Biennal Meeting, Nancy, France, 24-27 August 2015, Proceedings, Vol. 2, 717-720.

Gloaguen, E. 2015. “Ore deposits around the Ibero-Armorican arc and their relations to the Variscan orogeny”. Variscan 2015, The Variscan belt: correlations and plate dynamics, 9-11 june 2015, Rennes, France. Geologie de la France, 1, p. 72.

Jégo, S., Nakamura, M., Zellmer, G.F. 2015. Is gold solubility subject to pressure variations in ascending arc magmas ? Goldschmidt conference, Prague, Czech Republic, August 16-21, 2015.

Launay, G., Jégo, S., Pichavant, M. 2015. Cycle of metals during hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust: Experimental study of sulfide leaching by hydrothermal fluids. Goldschmidt conference, Prague, Czech Republic, August 16-21, 2015.

Laurent O., Couzinié S., Vanderhaeghe O., Zeh A., Moyen J.-F., Villaros A., Gardien V. 2015. U–Pb dating of Variscan igneous rocks from the eastern French Massif Central: southward migration of coeval crust- and mantle- melting witnesses late-orogenic slab retreat. Variscan Conference, 2015, Rennes, France.

Melleton J., Gloaguen E., Frei D. 2015. Rare-elements (Li-Be-Ta-Sn-Nb) magmatism in the European Variscan belt, a review. SGA 2015 Nancy.

Melleton, J. and Gloaguen E. 2015. “Timing of rare-elements (Li-Be-Ta-Sn-Nb) magmatism in the European Variscan belt”. Variscan 2015, The Variscan belt: correlations and plate dynamics, 9-11 june 2015, Rennes, France. Geologie de la France, 1, p. 100.

Pochon A., Gapais D., Gumiaux C., Branquet Y., Gloaguen E., Cagnard F., Martelet G. 2015. Sb-deposits in the Variscan Armorican belt (France) – potential relationships with basic intrusions and high-density magnetic lithologies at depth. SGA 2015 Nancy.

Pochon A, Gapais D, Gumiaux C, Branquet Y, Gloaguen E, Cagnard F, Martelet G. – 2015. “Geographical and lithological relationships between high-density magnetic lithologies and Variscan Sb ± Au mineralizations in the Armorican belt (France)”. Variscan 2015, Rennes. Variscan 2015, The Variscan belt: correlations and plate dynamics, 9-11 june 2015, Rennes, France. Geologie de la France, 1, p. 113.

Villaros A., Pichavant, M., 2015. The source-granite-pegmatite connection through mica behaviour from crustal melting to crystallisation. 25th Goldschmidt conference, 2015 Praque, République Tcheque.



Couzinié S., Laurent O, Moyen J-F, Zeh A, Bouilhol P, Villaros A. Missing isotope record of crust formation by post-collisional magmatism, a case study from the Variscan French Massif Central. Earth Planet Sci Lett. 456, 97-111.

Delchini, S., Lahfid, A., Plunder, A., Michard, A. (2016). Applicability of the RSCM geothermometry approach in a complex tectono-metamorphic context: The Jebilet massif case study (Variscan Belt, Morocco). Lithos 256–257, 1–12.

Jégo, S., Nakamura, M., Kimura, J.-I., Iizuka, Y., Chang, Q., Zellmer, G.F. (2016). Is gold solubility subject to pressure variations in ascending arc magmas ? Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 188, 224-243.

Pichavant, M., Villaros, A., Deveaud, S. Scaillet, B., Lahlafi M. (2016). Influence of redox state on mica crystallization in leucogranitic and pegmatitic liquids. Canadian Mineralogist, 54, 1-24.


Delchini, S. RSCM geothermometry: a reliable method to investigate thermal history of ore deposit”. Workshop international Salt Lake City, 2016.

Delchini, S., Lahfid, A., Lacroix, B., Plunder, A.  Tectonic-metamorphic evolution of the Jebilet massif (Morocco) in the context of the Variscan orogeny. AGU Fall Meeting, 2016 San Francisco.

Gumiaux, C., Gloaguen, E., Deveaud, S., Silva D., Michaud, J., Leopold, F., Branquet, Y., Lima, A., Pichavant, M. (2016). Analyse spatiale statistique appliquée aux champs de pegmatites minéralisées. RST Caen.

Launay G., Sizaret S., Guillou-Frottier L., Gloaguen E., Mélleton J., Champallier R., Pichavant M. (2016). Hydrodynamics of greisen related to Sn-W mineralization: application to the ore deposit of Panasqueira (Portugal). International workshop « recent advances in Sn-W and rare metal deposit metallogenesis », Novembre 2016, Nancy.

Launay G., Sizaret S. , Guillou-Frottier L., Gloaguen E., Mélleton J., Champallier R., Pichavant M. (2016). Hydrodynamic of ore deposits related to granitic intrusion: application to the Panasqueira Sn-W-(Cu) deposit (Portugal), 24-28 october, 25ème RST Caen, France.

Michaud, J., Marcoux, E., Pichavant, M., Gumiaux, C., Gloaguen, E. (2016). Sn, W concentration and mineralizations associated with rare metal granites : results on Argemela (Central Portugal) and comparison with Beauvoir (French Massif Central). International workshop « recent advances in Sn-W and rare metal deposit metallogenesis », Novembre 2016, Nancy.

Moyen J.-F., Laurent O., Chelle-Michou C., Couzinié S., Vanderhaeghe O., Zeh A., Villaros A., Gardien V. 2016. Le magmatisme granitique du Massif Central : croissance vs. remaniement crustal pendant la destruction d’un prisme orogénique. RST Caen.

Tourneur, E., Jégo, S., Pichavant, M. (2016). Experimental study of the fate of metals during metasomatism of the mantle unit of the Troodos ophiolite (Cyprus) by aqueous fluids coming from the underlying slab. 26th Goldschmidt Conference, 2016, Yokohama, Japan.

Villaros A, Laurent O., Pichavant M. 2016. Timing of Sn-W (and rare metals) deposits in the French Massif Central. What recent datings tell us ? International workshop « recent advances in Sn-W and rare metal deposit metallogenesis », Novembre 2016, Nancy.



Chelle-Michou C., Laurent O., Moyen J.-F., Block S., Paquette J.-L., Couzinié S., Gardien V, Vanderhaeghe O, Villaros A., Zeh A.. 2017. Pre-Cadomian to late-Variscan odyssey of the eastern Massif Central, France: formation of the West European crust in a nutshell. Gondwana Res. 46, 170-190.

Clemens J.D., Buick, I.S., Frei D., Lana C., Villaros A. (2017). Post-orogenic shoshonitic magmas of the Yzerfontein pluton, South Africa: the ‘smoking gun’ of Cape granite genesis ? Contrib Mineral and Petrol. 172, 72.

Clemens, J. D., Buick, I. S., Frei, D., Lana, C., & Villaros, A. (2017). Erratum to: Post-orogenic shoshonitic magmas of the Yzerfontein pluton, South Africa: the ‘smoking gun’of mantle melting and crustal growth during Cape granite genesis?. Contrib Mineral Petrol, 172, 82.

Laurent O, Couzinié S, Zeh A, Vanderhaeghe O, Moyen J-F, Villaros A., Gardien V.  (2017). U–Pb dating of Variscan igneous rocks from the eastern French Massif Central: the significance of long-lived, coeval crust and mantle melting during late-orogenic evolution. Inter J Earth Sci. 106, 421-451.

Laurent, O., Zeh, A., Gerdes, A., Villaros, A., Gros, K., & Słaby, E. (2017). How do granitoid magmas mix with each other? Insights from textures, trace element and Sr–Nd isotopic composition of apatite and titanite from the Matok pluton (South Africa). Contrib Mineral Petrol, 172, 80.

Lerouge, C., Gloaguen, E., Wille, G., Bailly, L. 2017. “Distribution of In and other rare metals in cassiterite and associated minerals in Sn ± W ore deposits of the western Variscan Belt.  Eur. J. Mineral. 29: 739-753. doi: 10.1127/ejm/2017/0029-2673

Moyen J-F., Laurent, O., Chelle-Michou, C., Couzinié, S., Vanderhaeghe, O., Zeh, A., Villaros, A. & Gardien, V. 2017. Collision vs. subduction-related magmatism: two contrasting sites of granite formation and implications for crustal growth. Lithos. 277, 154-177.

Silva D., Lima A., Gloaguen E., Gumiaux C., Noronha F., Deveaud S. 2017. Chapter 3 – Spatial geostatistical analysis applied to the Barroso-Alvão rare-elements pegmatite field (Northern Portugal). In: Teodoro A.C. (Ed.), Frontiers in Information Systems, 2017, Vol. 1, 68-102.


Couzinié S, Laurent O, Moyen J-F, Zeh, A, Bouilhol A., Villaros A., (2017). Post-collisional magmas: Isotopically camouflaged contributors to crustal growth. Goldschmidt Conference, Paris.

Delchini S., Lahfid A., Plunder A., Michard A. (2017). Can we apply the RSCM geothermometry approach to study the thermal history of a complex tectono-metamorphic context: the Jebilet massif (Variscan Belt, Morocco) ? WACMA1, Dakhla.

Delchini S., Lahfid A. (2017). Contribution of the RSCM geothermometry to understand the thermal history of the Variscan Jebilet massif and its ore deposits. Mineral Prospectivity conference, Orléans.

Fauguerolles, C., Pichavant, M. (2017). Linking H2 concentration and redox state (fH2 and  fO2) in H2O-H2-NaCl fluids. Goldschmidt Conference, Paris.

Huang, X.D., Lu, J.J., Sizaret, S., Barbanson, L., Chauvet, A., Wang, R.C., Ma, D.S., Li, X.Y., Zhao, X., Chen, G.H., Zhang, Q., (2017). The Weijia scheelite magnesian skarn in the Nanling Range, South China: a special case related to high fluorine activity. SGA, Québec, Canada.

Huang, X.D., Sizaret, S., Lu, J.J., Chauvet, A., Barbanson, L., Wang, R.C., Ma, D.S., Zhao, X., Zhang, Q., Li, X.Y., Chen, G.H. (2017). Local deformation, metasomatism, experimentation, and numerical modeling for skarn formation of the Middle-Late Jurassic Tongshanling Cu-Pb-Zn deposit in the Nanling Range, South China, SEG, Beijing, Chine.

Jégo, S., Gaillard, F., Iacono-Marziano, G. and Morizet, Y. Experimental determination of the pressure dependence of sulfur speciation in silicate melts. EMPG, Clermont-Ferrand, 2018.

Launay, G., Sizaret, S., Guillou-Frottier, L., Gloaguen, E., Pinto, F. (2017). Reconstruction of the paleo-fluid flow in the W-Sn vein system of Panasqueira. Goldschmidt Conference, Paris.

Launay, G., Sizaret, S., Guillou-Frottier, L.,  Gloaguen, E., Melleton, J., Pichavant, M., Champallier, R. (2017). Greisenisation and permeability changes in granitic intrusions related to Sn-W deposits: Case of Panasqueira. SGA, Québec, Canada.

Maussang, E., Jégo, S., Gaillard, F., Iacono-Marziano, G. and Morizet, Y. (2017). Investigating the effect of pressure on the sulfide-sulfate transition in silicate melts: Implications for chalcophile element mobility and the redox state of magma sources. Goldschmidt Conference, Paris.

Michaud, J., Marcoux, E., Pichavant, M., Gumiaux, C., Gloaguen, E. (2017). From rare metal granite to Sn-W-Li-Nb-Ta mineralizations: results on Argemela (Central Portugal). Goldschmidt Conference, Paris.

Nabyl, Z., Gaillard, F., Bailly, L., Melleton, J., Tuduri, J., Iacono-Marziano, G. (2017). Experimental simulation of rare metal enrichments during the fractionation of alkaline magma. Goldschmidt Conference, Paris.

Nabyl, Z., Gaillard, F., Massuyeau, M., Tuduri, J., Iacono-Marziano, G., Melleton, J., Bailly, L. (2017). Experimental simulation of rare metal enrichments during the fractionation of alkaline magma. Carbon forms, paths, and processes in the Earth, Lake Como School of Advanced Studies, Côme, Italy.

Nabyl, Z., Gaillard, F., Massuyeau, M., Tuduri, J., Iacono-Marziano, G., Melleton, J., Bailly, L. (2017). Experimental approach and predictive modelling of carbonatites and alkaline magmas rare metal enrichment. Mineral Prospectivity, current approaches and future innovations, Orléans.

Sizaret, S.,  Xiang, L., Huang, X.D.,  Lu, J.J., Wang R.C., (2017). Hydrothermal flows: a direct approach Goldschmidt Conference, Paris.

Sizaret, S., Launay, G., Coelho, G. (2017), Hydrodynamics of hydrothermal systems, what is the outcome for mineral exploration ?, Mineral Prospectivity, current approaches and future innovations – Orléans.

Villaros, A., Pichavant, M. (2017). The role of source processes in the origin of rare metal magmas – Insights from micas in granites and pegmatites. Goldschmidt Conference, Paris.



Chen J., Gaillard F., Villaros A., Laumonier M, Jolivet L, Unsworth M, Richard G, Scaillet B, Hashim L and Yang X. 2018 Long-lived soft regions within the Himalayan crust due to water-rich granitic melts. Accepted in Nature Communications.

Jégo, S., Pichavant, M., Coelho, G., Ramboz, C., Sizaret, S., Arbaret, L. and Branquet, Y. LA-ICPMS investigation of base and precious metal contents in sulfide minerals from the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus: Implications for the cycle of metals during hydrothermal alteration of oceanic crust. In préparation.

Launay, G., Jégo, S., Pichavant, M. Cycle of metals during hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust: Experimental study of sulfide leaching by hydrothermal fluids. In preparation.


Launay, G., Sizaret S., Guillou-Frottier L., Gloaguen E. and Pinto F. (2018). Deciphering fluid flow at the magmatic-hydrothermal transition: case of the world-class W-Sn-(Cu) ore deposits of Panasqueira (Portugal). Earth and Planetary Science Letters (in press).

Leopold dit Office, F., C. Gumiaux, E. Gloaguen, L. Guillou-Frottier, E. Druguet (2018). Origin and emplacement of pegmatitic crustal melts: insights from spatial statistical analysis of field data. Submitted to Lithos.

Michaud, J., Gumiaux, C., Pichavant, M., Gloaguen, E., Marcoux, E. (2018). From magmatic to hydrothermal Sn-Li-Nb-Ta-W mineralization: the Argemela District (Portugal). Submitted to Mineralium Deposita.

Michaud, J., Pichavant, M. (2018). The H/F ratio as an indicator of contrasted wolframite deposition mechanisms. Submitted to Ore Geology Reviews.

Tourneur, E., Jégo, S., Pichavant, M. The fate of sulfur and metals during metasomatism of the mantle wedge by slab-derived fluids at variable oxygen fugacity. In preparation.

Villaros A, Moyen, J-F. Laurent O, Couzinié S. (2018). Plutons and domes: the consequences of anatectic magma extraction – Example from the South-Eastern French Massif Central.. Accepted in International Journal of Earth Science.

Villaros A., Pichavant M. (2018). Mica-melt trace elements partitioning and the granite-pegmatite connection: The St-Sylvestre complex (Western French Massif Central). Submitted to Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta.

Villaros A, Pichavant M. Effects of fluid-present melting on anatectic melt composition. In preparation

Villaros A., Laurent, O., Pichavant, M, Zeh, A. Source and timing of the syn-collisionnal St-Sylvestre leucogranite Complex (Limousin, France):  U-Pb and Lu-Hf on zircons. In preparation