From the onset, VOLTAIRE implication on the training scheme has been closely tied to OSUC master programs. Compared to the situation in 2011, the OSUC Master program has evolved toward a simpler design: it now consists of 3 main courses, one for deep (Geodynamic, Georessources), one for shallow (Geo2Env) and one for Atmosphere and Environmental risk (CPRE)’s Earth. Of particular note is the integration of ENAG, the BRGM driven High Application School for Mineral resources, into the OSUC Master program in 2016. This evolution toward a sole common educational scheme at the Master level is in large part due to the structuring role of VOLTAIRE via the building of a common thinking in training and research among partners. The increased number of student applications (about 150/year for 40 positions, with about 10% foreign students) testifies to the visibility and success of the training scheme.

In terms on international actions, VOLTAIRE has offered continuous support for forstering the link with UQAM in Canada (mineral ressources), via the funding of 12/15 Masters travel/stay to/at Montreal for 4 months every year. This relationships is one of the main reason of OSUC Master enduring attractivity in Solid Earth Sciences. Similarly, over the last 4 years, VOLTAIRE has supported 4-5 Master projects every year with Shandong-Jinan, Fudan-Shangai, Nanjing and Beijing Universities in China (Atmospheric Chemistry and Solid Earth Sciences), within the framework of a shared Master programs with the University of Orléans.

VOLTAIRE has continuously supported Master research projects, in addition to PhDs thesis. It has also installed a monitoring station of air and water quality control used yearly for training activities (Super-Site VOLTAIRE) at the Master level. All field training at the Master level are co-organised with, and co-funded by, BRGM, OSUC and VOLTAIRE (50 ke/year).

So far, VOLTAIRE  has entirely or partly supported the following summer schools or colloquia, and proposed sessions to international meetings :

  • -Compola, Saida Maroc, 12-15 avril 2016, Colloque Francophone sur la combustion et pollution atmosphérique.
  • 5th Sino-French joint workshop on Atmospheric environment, Xi’An, Chine, 11-14 Octobre 2016
  • – 2ème workshop Interlabex Ressources21-VOLTAIRE, Février 2016, Orléans (M. Pichavant, organiser).
  • – Co-participation to the international workshop  « recent advances in Sn-W and rare metal deposit metallogenesis », Novembre 2016, Nancy, in collaboration with  Labex Ressources21.
  • -Co-organisation with the Institut Carnot du BRGM of the international workshop: « Predictive geosciences for georesources exploration/management and environmental issues » 25-26 octobre 2016
  • – Organisation of  ‘Ingénierie écologique au service de la gestion durable des zones humides’, 5-6 octobre 2016, Orléans
  • – First Summer School “Granites” on the topic “Magmatic transfers: experimentation and modelling”, in tandem with CNRS/le Studium, Orléans, 10-13, July 2017
  • – Goldschmidt conference 2017 on  granites and related resources (session 6D, co-resp. M. Pichavant), Paris August 2017.
  • – Co-organisation by ISTO (F. Laggoun) and Yugra State University, Khanty-Mansyisk, Sibérie, Russie (E. Lapshina) of the 5th International Field Symposium “West Siberian Peatlands and Carbon Cycle: Past and Present” and International Conference “Carbon Balance of Western Siberian Mires in the Context of Climate Change”, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia, 19-29 June, 2017
  • – Organisation of an international workshop on “H in minerals and deformation”, H Stunitz/H. Raimbourg, Orléans, octobre 2017
  • – International VOLTAIRE workshop on the economy of environments and natural resources, Orléans 5-6 septembre 2017
  • – Organisation of a summer school on atmospheric processes, with Dr. Ravishankara, VOLTAIRE-STUDIUM, Orléans, July 2017
  • Reactive Transport for the Earth and Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century : 2 – 4 October 2017 Château Clos de Lucé, Amboise, France, C. Tournassat,

But perhaps the main achievement of VOLTAIRE in the educational field has been the lauching of the EUR Orleans Graduate School (OGS) project, along with CAPRYSSES labex. CAPRYSSES is a labex (driven by ICARE lab in Orléans) dedicated to the study of energy and combustion processes (, hence looking at fluids of industrial interests, which are also evolving under P-T conditions often similar to those of natural origin treated by VOLTAIRE. Because both labex have a significant part of their activities rooted in instrumental/experimental approaches, often unique in France, the convergence of interest between these two partners is quite natural, inasmuch VOLTAIRE involved already part of ICARE scientists. By the end of 2016-mid 2017, both labex elaborated a common research and educational program which was submitted to the first EUR call in september 2017. Though the OGS project has not been selected (as none of Earth Sciences oriented EUR projects), the brainstorming that led to its birth has paved the way of the new educational strategy that will be implemented by VOLTAIRE 2 (see section 2.2). A concrete illustration of this new dynamic is the co-funding by VOLTAIRE and CAPRYSSES of a MOOC on spectroscopy, which admittedly represents one of the most widely used analytical technique in the broad field of Earth, Atmosphere, Material and Energy sciences (ie that covered by OGS): this MOOC will be launched next year.

Further details on the role of VOLTAIRE in the broad field of education are given  below:

– As a part of the implementation of the master’s program “Atmospheric Sciences and Environment”, a field study site called “Super Site VOLTAIRE” has been installed in 2012 on the CNRS campus. The super site is run in collaboration with the Lig’Air (Air quality monitoring agency of Region Centre-Val de Loire). It is equipped with state of art instrumentation dedicated to the measurement of air pollutants (gases and particles) and meteorological parameters. The station is used for Master students training. The Labex is also supporting since 2012 the networked course « Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere » with the master in Environmental Science and Engineering (Science et Génie de l’Environnement) of the University Paris-Est-Créteil;

Figure 1. The super site VOLTAIRE located on the Orléans campus, between ICARE and LPC2E laboratories, for the monitoring of air quality and the carrying out of training activities at the Master level.

– As a part of the implementation of the master’s program “Geosciences and Environment”, one field work week has been set up since 2012 in the “La Guette peatland site” (Fig. 2), one of the instrumented sites of the French Peatland National Observatory. An instrumented soil profile was also installed in the INRA Research Centre for the practical work of master students;

Figure 2. A close-up of the instrumented site of La Guette peatland (south of Orléans) equiped for monitoring gaz emissions.

VOLTAIRE has supported two field courses in geodynamics, (i) one in first year (M1) in the Alpine Corsica where students map metamorphic units and study the deformation/metamorphism processes and their relationships with the dismantling by the Oligo-Miocene extension forming the Mediterranean back-arc basins, and another one (ii) in second year (M2) in Greece where the students visit a transect of the back-arc system from the active Corinth Rift to an active subduction volcano (Santorini, photo), through the exhumed extensional systems of the Cyclades.

Figure 3. Santorini island, showing the wall of the Minoan caldera, belonging to the Cyclades-Aegean arc. The island is one of the end-point of a broad cross section across and active arc, studied by Master students during a 3 weeks field trip and by various PhD-PDRA fellows supported by VOLTAIRE: the other end point is the Corinth rift.

This allows students to reconstruct the complete time evolution of a migrating subduction system and associated mineral ressources. The field courses in Greece and Alpine Corsica were opened in 2012 and 2014, the former being the opportunity for our students to share an experience with international students or colleagues (15 students from Caltech in 2013 and 3-5 Chinese colleagues in 2014, 2015, 2016). A new field course in Andalusia, Spain, is being held now for M2 students.

– An instrumented agricultural plot was installed in 2013 and it is run by INRA for the training of the engineer students of the University of Orléans.

Development of new Master programs:

A double master program in Atmospheric Sciences has started with two Chinese universities (Fudan- Shanghai and Shandong-Jinan) and the University of Orléans. Student exchanges between these universities and the University of Orléans will be formally established in 2016, yet Chinese master’s students are already welcomed in Orleans for their research training since 2013.

Research training of master’s students and PhD students funded by VOLTAIRE

– A total of 50 Master’s students have had their master research internship funded within the different
work packages of the Labex Voltaire
– 13 PhD students are fully supported (salary and PhD related expenditures) by the labex Voltaire and 14 have been co-funded. The detail is given in the table below:

PhDs paid wholly or partly* by VOLTAIRE

Name Unit Research Topic Domain CONTRACT
Start End
ER-RAY Houssine ISTO
L. Mercury
 Thermokinetic modelisation of reactive transfer in the sub-soil, including biogeochemical and geological aspects SIC 01/10/2011 12/11/2013
L. Mercury
Development of a model for the reactive transfer of nanoparticles SIC 01/10/2013 31/03/2014
CLOOTENS Nicolas LEO Evaluation of the economic impact of the renewal of mining activities in France ECO 01/10/2013 30/09/2016
L. Jolivet T Baudin
Structure and geodynamic evolution of the North Pyrenean zone ST 01/10/2013 30/09/2016
BUREAU Jordan UR Science du Sol INRA Co-development of measurement techniques and modelisation for soil N2O emissions at the landscape scale ATMO 01/01/2014 31/12/2016
E. Marcoux
Ores associated to the volcano-plutonic complex of Nador and its bearing on Mediterranean geodynamics ST 01/10/2013 31/12/2013
L. Jolivet
Mechanical properties and strain in subduction zones: laboratory and field constraints. ST 01/10/2014 31/03/2015
V. Catoire
Analyses and interpretation of gaseous pollutants in the troposphere by onboard infra-red laser spectrometry ATMO 01/09/2014 31/08/2017
L. Jolivet
Role of subduction on the localisation of geothermal resources in Anatolia ST 01/10/2014 30/09/2017
L. Mercury
Geomechanical-Geochemical coupling in non saturated porous media SIC 01/01/2015 31/12/2017
A. Bruand
 Influence of structural and hydrous states on the functionning of microbial communities in soils SIC 01/02/2015 31/01/2018
L. Jolivet
Subduction dynamics and associated ore processes in the Aegean ST 01/02/2015 31/07/2015
TIWARI Dhirendra* ISTO
L. Mercury
Nano fluidic studies SIC 01/04/2015 30/09/2017
M. Pichavant
Mechanism of emplacement of ore-granites ST 01/04/2017 31/12/2018
LEGLISE Joris ICARE Contribution of biogenic organic volatil compounds  to the formation of secondary organic aerosols  (SOA) ATMO 01/10/2015 30/09/2018
L. Mercury
 Infra-red measurements in nanofluidic experiments SIC 01/07/2016 28/09/2016
LAURENT Valentin*
L. Jolivet
Strain localisation in HP-HT shear zones and Ar isotopes record. ST 01/09/2016 28/09/2017
L. Jolivet
Relation deformation-age 40Ar/39Ar. Application to strain localisation in crustal detachments. ST 01/09/2016 28/09/2017
M. Pichavant
Experimental constraints on H2 storage and transport in sandstones ST 01/01/2017 31/03/2017
F. Gaillard
Experimental characterisation of the fertility in rare metals of alkali magmas ST 01/12/2016 31/10/2019
M. Faure
Subduction dynamics and its relationships with the Gold deposit in the Hercynian Orogen : field geochronological and numerical constraints ST 01/09/2017 31/08/2020
H. Stünitz
Relationships between geodynamics, resources and geothermal fluids in high pressure shear zones: experimental and geochronological constraints ST 01/10/2017 30/09/2020
P. Echegut
Experimental constraints on the emissivity of phonolitic liquids ST 01/10/2017 31/12/2017
D. Mirza – C. Turcu
Trade, location and environment : a focus on natural resources ECO 01/10/2017 30/09/2020
F. Laggoun
Effect of global change on the carbon and nitrogen cycles in peatlands: experimental constraints SIC 01/11/2017 31/10/2018
G. Iacono Marziano
Experimental constraints on the solubility of Pt elements in ultramafic liquids ST 01/01/2018 31/03/2018
S. Sizaret
Field, numerical and experimental constraints on Sn-W ore deposits at Panasqueira ST 01/10/2018 31/12/2018